13 Key Advantages and Disadvantages of Waffle Slab Design | Uses and Applications of Waffle Slabs
What is Waffle Slab Design? | Advantages and Disadvantages of Waffle Slab Design | Benefits, Uses and Applications of Waffle Slabs
What is Waffle Slab Design?
A waffle slab, also known as a two-way joist slab, is a reinforced concrete slab with concrete ribs running in two directions on its underside.
The grid pattern generated by the reinforcing ribs inspired the name waffle. Waffle slabs are much stronger than flat slabs, flat slabs with drop panels, two-way slabs, one-way slabs, and one-way joist slabs for spans longer than 40 feet (12 m).
A waffle slab is a type of form of concrete construction that works as a lightweight, slab-on-grade foundation for residential buildings and commercial units.
The waffle slab is composed of concrete, an aggregate, and a lightweight aggregate.
Waffle slabs are a decorative way to cover a concrete slab. It is often an inexpensive option for homeowners who want to spruce up their concrete slab.
The waffle pattern provides for a beautiful design that is also easier to keep clean.
Waffle Slabs Design
The top of a waffle slab is flat, while the bottom has a grid-like surface created by joists. After the concrete has hardened, the grid is constructed by removing the molds.
This structure was designed to be more solid when used on longer spans and with heavier loads.
Because of its rigidity, this type of structure is recommended for buildings that require minimal vibration, such as laboratories and manufacturing facilities.
It is also used in buildings that require large open spaces, such as theaters or train stations.
Waffle slab systems are classified into two types: system of one-way waffle slabs & two-way waffle slabs
A waffle slab can be constructed in a variety of ways, but generic forms are required to give the slab its waffle shape.
Waffle pods, horizontal supports, vertical supports, cube connections, hole plates, clits, and steel Bars are among the various pieces that comprise the formwork.
The supports are created first, then the pods are placed, and finally the concrete is poured.
This process can take three different paths, but the core method is the same in all of them:
In situ: Formwork is built and concrete is poured on-site, after which the slab is erected (if required).
Precast: The slabs are fabricated elsewhere and then transported to the job site to be erected.
Pre-fabricated: The reinforcements are integrated into the slab during the production process, eliminating the need to strengthen the assembly on-site. This is the costliest choice.
Uses and Applications of Waffle Slabs
- The most common application of waffle slabs is in residential buildings. They are an efficient, inexpensive way to give the slab a decorative patina.
- Industrial buildings such as warehouses and factories use waffle slabs to replace concrete floors, which are heavy and may be prone to corrosion.
- Waffle slabs can be used for building foundations for elevators, escalators, and other entrances that move loads in and out of buildings quickly.
- The shape of the pattern creates a type of polygon, which makes it possible to build a precise structure, which is useful in pre-fabricated buildings.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Waffle Slab Design
Advantages of Waffle Slab
- Waffle slabs are capable of withstanding higher loading pressures than flat slabs or slab-on-grade foundations and are therefore more suitable for heavy loads.
- The waffle pattern is said to be a “displacement” load type, which makes it effective in preventing the formation of cracks in the concrete.
- Waffle slabs have a greater resistance to seismic activity than flat slabs or slab-on-grade foundations; this makes them ideal in earthquake-prone areas.
- Waffle slabs have a longer lifespan than slab-on-grade foundations. As no water can enter the structure, waffle slabs do not have to be waterproofed.
- Waffle slabs help to maintain the heat of the building’s inside, making it more energy-efficient than other types of foundations.
- Where the live loads are relatively small, such as apartment buildings or motels, it is cost-effective.
- Ribbed or Waffle slabs have a thinner slab than other slab designs. As a result, the weight of the slab is lowered. The structural characteristics of the structure may vary as a result of the weight savings.
- Ribbed and waffle slabs can be used to build long slab spans. Long spans are desirable in many circumstances when designing a building. Ribbed or waffle slabs are a simple solution for this.
- Provide architectural benefits. All electrical appliances can be readily put in the gap between the ribs, which can be artistically appealing.
Disadvantages of Waffle Slab
- Waffle slabs can become expensive to install when compared with other foundation systems. This is because of massive amount of formwork materials are required, which can be quite expensive.
- In comparison with flat slabs, waffle slabs are more expensive.
- The form-work and transportation costs associated with the waffle slabs can be greater due to a large amount of concrete necessary for each of the slabs.
- Because most of the waffle slab is made entirely from reinforced concrete, it is heavier than other foundation systems and can be difficult (although not impossible) to transport.
- Waffle slabs are best suited for level topographical areas rather than sloped ones. This is because the slabs can remain stable in the vertical plane even when exposed to heavy pressure from torrential rain and snow falls.
- Waffle slabs are not suitable for use in rough terrain or mountainous areas, because of the difficulty in transportation.
- Waffle slabs are not suitable as foundations for columns with a diameter larger than 8 inches (20 centimeters).
- If a waffle slab has any cracks, it is possible that it could develop into an unstable structure during heavy traffic loadings.
Waffle Slab FAQs
1. What are the benefits of the ribbed slab?
The slab is lighter and stiffer than an identical flat slab. Reducing the size of foundations by lowering the ultimate load. They provide an excellent form where slab vibration is a concern.
2. What is the difference between Waffle Slabs and Slope-Flat Slabs?
The raised portion is the unique feature of a Waffle Slab and the height depends upon the thickness of concrete and spacing between waffle ribs.
It has a regular pattern of vertical waffle ribs and horizontal tie bars required to resist the imposed loads at any point. Its main function is to prevent cracking under compression.
3. What are some of the patterns in waffle slabs?
The patterns may be square, rectangular, circular, etc. It will have a grid like structure on top and bottom faces.
4. What are the advantages of a waffle slab?
The main advantage of a waffle slab is that the material can be very stiff and durable due to the cross-sectional reinforcement as well as its light weight. It is much better than using regular flat slab.
5. What are the disadvantages of a waffle slab?
Following are some of the disadvantages:
- The flexural rigidity of a waffle slab is less than the flat slab.
- It is difficult to carry out a bearing capacity test for this type of concrete foundation since the length of the slabs is not more than one meter.
- The spacing between adjacent vertical grid bars is smaller than that of the flat slab.
- The deflection in the erection stage for large spans has to be verified by pre-stressing or some other means such as vibrating.
6. What are the advantages of Ribbed vs Solid Waffle slabs?
The Ribbed Waffle Slab has been used in lieu of Solid Slabs. They are economical and lighter than the Solid Slabs.
7. How can one find out if the structure is a waffle slab?
For this, we need to look at the floor plans of the structure. By looking at it, we will be able to get a rough idea of how many join points there are in the structure.
Every other space will either be filled (with concrete) or empty (in between slabs).
8. What are the advantages of poured Concrete Waffle Slab compared to Precast Concrete Waffle slabs?
Poured Concrete Waffle Slab is flexible, that’s why they are used in floor slabs instead of precast concrete waffle slabs which are costlier, less flexible, and less durable.
9. What are the disadvantages of poured Concrete Waffle slabs compared to Precast Concrete Waffle slabs?
The Poured Concrete Waffle slabs are less durable and flexible. For instance, if we shift an object such as a cupboard, the structural integrity of the slab could be compromised. Plus there is the amount of time that it takes to set.
10. What are the benefits of Ribbed slabs?
The major benefits of ribbed slabs are:
- They don’t require any additional reinforcement unless absolutely needed. That saves costs and time.
- Ribbed slabs are a much more creative structural system than a flat slab.
- It is easy to place utilities on ribbed slabs.
- They can be used to span over long distances which is an added advantage.
- They allow the owner to create different and artistic designs with ease.
- The use of waffles in slabs increases the amount of usable space in the floor area of a building, which can help reduce its overall cost.
11. How Do Waffle Slabs Work?
The biggest advantage of using waffle slabs is that they provide a more rigid design than flat slabs.
This makes them ideal in a situation where there is a need for more rigidity in the floor slab to avoid deflection and vibration.
A waffle slab is also known as ribbed, checkered, and patterned slabs, which is made out of poured or reinforced concrete.
The pattern on the surface of this type of slab allows for an easy and accurate pouring process without waste when it comes to concrete.
12. What is the benefit of a waffle slab?
The biggest advantage of using waffle pod slabs is that they are significantly less expensive than standard raft slabs. To provide the volume required for the ground slab, waffle pod slabs employ foam void formers. Traditional raft slabs, on the other hand, are made entirely of concrete and reinforced steel.