What Does Brutalism Mean In Architecture?
What Does Brutalism Mean In Architecture?
Brutalism is an architectural style that emphasizes materials, textures, and construction to produce highly expressive forms. It is derived from the Swedish phrase brutalism, meaning “new brutalism”.
This style was a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s and was often associated with a socialist utopian ideology.
Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase bare building materials and structural elements over decorative design.
The problem of material and texture in brutalist architecture is fundamental and complex, as there are various, often contradictory, approaches to its use.
Le Corbusier’s definition of his favorite material – béton brut (meaning “raw concrete”) – is an example of this style. Brutalist interior design has come to be known as one of modern design’s most difficult styles to date due to its timeless quality enjoyed by none other.
What Are The Characteristics Of Brutalist-Style Architecture?
Brutalist-style architecture is generally associated with rough, unfinished surfaces, unusual shapes, heavy-looking materials, straight lines, and small windows.
It emerged during the 1950s in the United Kingdom among post-war reconstruction projects and has since been further developed to focus on the contrast between human design and nature’s colorful elements. Brutalism emphasizes materials, textures, and construction to produce highly expressive forms.
What Is An Example Of Brutalist Architecture?
Trellick Tower in London, England is an example of brutalist architecture. Designed by architect Ernő Goldfinger and commissioned by the London County Council following the success of his 1963 Balfron Tower, Trellick Tower is now a Grade II listed tower block in Kensal Town, London.
It contains 217 flats and 5 maisonettes, all with their own balcony. The building has all of the central features of Brutalist architecture, including raw unpainted concrete and bold angular forms.
Trellick Tower is a sprawling icon of brutalist architecture that has become a symbol of the style in West London. It is also one of the most polarizing examples of brutalist architecture due to its universally hated design.
Who Started Brutalist Architecture?
French-Swiss Modernist architect Le Corbusier is credited with starting brutalist architecture in the 1950s. He was one of the most influential architects of the 20th century and a leading proponent of brutalist architecture. His first example of brutalist architecture was the Unite d’Habitation in Marseille, France, completed in 1952. This building took Le Corbusier’s famous quote that a house is “a machine for living in” and applied it to an entire community. The building was constructed using béton-brut concrete, which was textured by wooden planks that had been used to form it. Other architects who helped popularise brutalist design include Alison and Peter Smithson, Marcel Breuer, and Ernő Goldfinger.
Which City Has The Most Brutalist Architecture?
Boston, Massachusetts is widely considered to have the most Brutalist architecture in North America. The city is home to iconic Brutalist buildings such as Boston City Hall, which was completed in 1968 by Kallmann, McKinnell, and Knowles.
Other notable examples of Brutalist architecture in Boston include the Erich Lindemann Mental Health Center, the Christian Science Center Administration Building, and the Government Service Center.
A new pocket guide to Boston serves as a travel companion for Brutalist architecture enthusiasts, while an interactive map pinpoints some of the city’s most iconic buildings.
Why Was Concrete Used In Brutalism?
Concrete was used in Brutalism due to its malleability and permanence, as well as its ability to create unique surfaces. It was also seen as a futuristic material that could fulfill modernist utopian dreams of mass housing and urban renewal.
After the Second World War, with the advent of metal reinforcing, concrete became even more popular for its strength and expansiveness.
Concrete is also a versatile material that can be used for sculptural and tactile effects, making it ideal for Brutalist architecture. It is often left exposed on both environmental grounds (it cools the building in summer and retains warmth in winter) and aesthetic reasons.
Other materials such as brick, wood, stone, and sheet metal are also used in Brutalism, but concrete remains the most popular choice due to its durability and versatility.