What Is Architecture Truss In Construction?

What Is Architecture Truss In Construction?

What Is Architecture Truss In Construction?

Trusses are structures used in construction that consist of interconnected beams and nodes arranged in a triangular pattern. The beams, also known as members, are connected at nodes, and the entire assembly behaves as a single object.

Trusses are designed to transfer loads through compression and tension forces in the members, with external forces and reactions acting only at the nodes.

Trusses can be either planar, with all members and nodes lying in a two-dimensional plane, or space trusses, with members and nodes extending into three dimensions.

The top beams in a truss are called top chords and are typically under compression, while the bottom beams are called bottom chords and are typically under tension. The interior beams are called webs, and the areas within the webs are called panels or polygons.

What Are The Characteristics Of Architecture Truss?

There are several types of truss architecture, each with its unique characteristics and applications. Some common types of trusses include:

Pitched truss, or standard truss: This type of truss is characterized by its triangular shape and is most often used for roof construction.

Parallel chord truss, or flat truss: This type of truss gets its name from its parallel top and bottom chords and is often used for floor construction.

Truncated truss: This combination of pitched and parallel chord trusses is used in hip roof construction.

Metal plate-connected wood truss: This roof or floor truss uses wood members connected with metal connector plates.

Warren truss: This type of truss uses alternating equilateral triangles for its members.

Octet truss: This type of truss consists of all equal equilateral triangles and is used in various configurations to fill up three-dimensional space.

Pratt truss: This truss uses vertical members for compression and diagonal members to resist tension. It is often used in bridge construction due to its efficiency under static, vertical loading.

Bowstring truss: This truss is curved and was initially used for arched bridges. It has since been used to construct aircraft hangars and other military buildings.

King post truss: This simple truss consists of two angled supports leaning into joint vertical support.

Queen post truss: This truss is similar to a king post truss but has a horizontal extension at the center that relies on beam action for stability. It is suitable for shorter spans.

The lenticular truss has arched top and bottom chords, forming a lens shape. It is often used in pony truss bridges.

Town’s lattice truss: This truss, designed by Ithiel Town, uses diagonal planks arranged in a lattice pattern to form a lightweight alternative to heavy-timber bridges.

Vierendeel truss: This truss does not fit the strict definition of a truss because it contains non-two-force members, but it is a frame with fixed joints that can transfer and resist bending moments. It is used in structures where diagonal bracing is not desired.

Applications Of Architecture Truss

Trusses are a type of architectural structure used in a variety of applications, including the construction of vehicle and aircraft frames, towers, bridges, mechanical equipment like cranes, and buildings.

They are chosen for their ability to distribute weight efficiently and resist stress effectively. The connections between the truss components are essential for the structural integrity of the framing system.

In buildings with large wood trusses, the most important connections are those between the truss and its supports. These connections must not only support the weight of the structure (bearing loads) but also withstand shear forces acting perpendicular to the truss and uplift forces caused by wind.

Depending on the overall design of the building, these connections may also need to transfer bending moment. Wood posts often create strong, affordable connections between large trusses and walls.

The specifics of the post-to-truss connection can vary but may involve notching solid-sawn timber or glulam posts to form a truss-bearing surface, or using mechanically-laminated posts and shortened inner or outer plies to create a double-shear connection.

 

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