20 Top Types of Fencing for Farms & Homes | Different Types of Fencing Wires & Styles
Top 20 Types of Fencing | Fence Types and Styles | Types of Privacy Fences | Types Of Wooden Fences & Styles
The type of fencing you choose will not only play a key role in your home’s exterior design, but also provide one of the most important benefits of all homes; security. A professionally installed fence gives every homeowner that true sense of home we all desire.
Different Types of Fencing
The most popular types of fences are:
1. Wood Fencing
Wood is the most popular fencing type across the world. Not only does it give homeowners a sense of privacy with the height wood fencing provides, but they are also one of the more attractive options on the market.
Wooden fencing is made from planks of wood that make it strong enough to clean a shotgun blast. Wooden fences are ideal for commercial use because they are cheap and sturdy. They also do not require a lot of maintenance, but the wood used to make them can warp over time.
If you’re looking for a combination of sturdiness and beauty, wooden fences could be the best fencing material for you.
A wood fence can be a great option for areas with high foot traffic such as play areas or gardens. Wooden fences are affordable and easy to maintain.
Wooden fences are common in the United States, Canada, and other countries, particularly in semi-urban or rural settings.
A long-lasting wood fence adds warmth to your home. Pickets, panels, logs, lattice, and posts are all available. Panels are a good option if you have a soft nose and want to be private.
Always choose the best type of wood that can tolerate weather changes. Get it season-proof and termite resistant so that termite problems do not arise, which could shorten the life of the wood fence.
Natural color-treated wood is a good choice because it improves and enhances the property’s charm.
A wood fence’s cost is determined by the quality of the wood and the thickness of the planks used, as well as the length and height of the fence.
Vines can be grown to cover the pickets and lattice designs, and colorful blooms will bring life to your fence.
For building wood fences, pine, fir or spruce, cedar, and cypress are excellent choices. There are many different types of wood fences to choose from, and you can pick the one that best suits your demands and budget.
Advantages of Wood Fencing
- It is strong. Fence posts and rails are capable of withstanding heavy weight and pressure.
- It is beautiful, owing to the fact that wood grain differs in color and texture for each type of wood. The natural grain remains after its color fades or when it is exposed to the elements.
- It can be custom designed for your needs by a contractor or a homeowner, which makes it very affordable, easy-to-style, and convenient to use.
- It is adaptable to a wide range of landscape and design applications, and it will inject life into your home.
Disadvantages of Wood Fencing
- Since wood is not fire-resistant, it may not remain fire-resistant during temperature fluctuations due to its ability to expand and contract at random. You will also need professional aid to get it screwed properly and to alleviate expansion and contraction troubles in order to increase its endurance.
- Wood is susceptible to termites, insects, and moisture damage.
- Wood may not be long-lasting and can fade or get corroded over time.
- It does not last forever, but it does improve with age.
- It can be very hard to repair or replace if it rips or tears when it breaks down because of a change in temperature.
- It is inclined to leave blemishes in the wood that may eventually disappear on their own without treatment.
2. Metal Fencing
Metal fencing is made from iron, steel or aluminum, and can be used outdoors or indoors depending on your needs.
You can even install it in your garden to provide adequate privacy for your plants and flowers because it’s extremely durable and able to withstand harsh weather conditions.
Metal fences are usually used for fencing in industrial and agricultural areas. They can be made to any length or height according to your choice, and hence are also known as “expandable” fences.
They are much stronger than wood fences and hence last longer, but they cost more. A chain link fence is a type of metal fence that is used to segregate certain areas.
Advantages of Metal Fencing
- Metal or chain link fence is cost-effective and lasts longer than wood fences.
- Metal fences are fire-resistant and resistant to corrosion due to their stainless-steel composite construction.
- They are easy to maintain because all you need to do is clean, paint, and disinfect them because they are totally sanitary, unlike wooden fences.
- They make your home look more secure and are therefore good for kids and pets.
Disadvantages of Metal Fencing
- They require professional assistance when installing them because they are a bit complicated to do on your own.
- They are not aesthetically pleasing; they only differ in color, their texture is similar to that of a chain link fence, which makes them unpalatable.
- When they rust, the repairs are expensive.
- They will not stay in place for long if it rains or snows because of their inability to stand the elements.
- Metal is prone to peeling paint and corroding, which makes it less desirable than wood fences.
3. Wrought Iron Fence
Wrought iron is metal that has been worked by a blacksmith, or ironworker, through forging to produce a billet, bar, beam, or rail.
Wrought iron fences are not only more expensive but are also difficult to install and maintain. They are better suited for gardens and parks.
The strength of these fences varies with the thickness of the material used. An iron fence is more expensive than a wood or chain link. They are also heavy and may not be easily moved.
When you see homes with funky designs on top of their fences, oftentimes, those homeowners chose a wrought iron fence. While wrought iron fences are both strong and beautiful, they do require constant upkeep. If you want to maintain its beauty, wrought iron fences need to be sanded or repainted every two to three years.
Furthermore, going back to the security portion of the conversation, wrought iron fences are not popular choices for the more conservative homeowner.
Wrought iron fences can be custom made for your home or business, and the prices vary depending on their design.
You receive better results with a wrought iron or steel fence if you have a large piece of land to maintain, and it will last for many years if well maintained. For instance, an iron fence can last as long as 50 years, while steel lasts only about 30 years.
Advantages of Wrought Iron Fence
- It is strong and tough. Iron is lightweight and can withstand warm or cold weather. It does not burn easily, which makes it heat-resistant and impervious to fire.
- You can install a wrought iron fence on the free side of your property so that you do not need to take down any trees or bushes to make room for it, unlike chain link fences that are hard to put up on the outer boundaries of your property. Wrought iron also resists rusting and corrosion, making it more durable than wood fencing materials.
- It has an elegant and imposing appearance and is therefore perfect for palatial homes.
Disadvantages of Wrought Iron Fence
- It is very heavy, which makes it hard to carry around or move inside your home.
- It is difficult to install because of its weight and shapes, making it unsuitable for those who do not have professional help to help them install it. It can also cause injury if you mishandle the iron.
- It is not fire-resistant like a wood fence, and if left unprotected, the iron may rust.
- It may get damaged or rusted in the hot summer weather.
- It will rust if you leave it outside or use an oil-based paint on it.
- It contains fumes that can make you sick, and it is highly flammable when mixed with other substances such as oil or gasoline, especially when exposed to water or fire in wet climates where there is a tendency for rust to occur easily.
4. Chain Link Fencing
Chain link fencing is made of steel rods that are linked together to form a sturdy fence. It can be made in different lengths and widths and comes in various colors as well.
Chain link fencing is an economical, temporary fence which is widely used for homes and commercial buildings, as well as by farmers and ranchers.
Because it is temporary, chain link fences are more likely to be replaced during the course of construction.
Chain link fencing can be made from wrought iron or steel with a wire mesh. It can also be welded together.
The longer you want the fence to last, the stronger it should be and therefore, the more expensive it will cost. The less sturdy it is, the more affordable it will be.
The cost of chain link fencing varies according to the material used and the fence’s height. If you require a custom-made fence, be prepared to pay more.
Chain link fences are easy-to-install fences that can be fixed in less than an hour when professionally installed.
These fences have gaps that can allow unwanted animals or people to get into your property. They are also not fire resistant and may not withstand harsh weather conditions or temperature changes.
Chain link or wire fencing has been the timeless go-to for rural properties and farm homesteads, or for low fences separating areas of the garden. This option is incredibly cost-effective and is easy to repair or replace. Chain link fences do not add much privacy to the home, but perform the other basic functions of a fence quite well.
Oftentimes, homeowners add a good amount of shrubbery, flowers, vines or even privacy slates on the outside of chain link fence
Advantages of Chain link fencing
- It is easy to install and can be purchased in many different sizes, heights, and frames.
- It is not as sturdy as other types of fencing but will last longer than wood fences. It can also be used at intervals if you want to fence your garden or home increasingly.
- Chain link fences are economical because they are durable and last longer than wood fences.
- Chain link fences are not as aesthetically pleasing as wrought iron or steel fences.
Disadvantages of Chain Link Fence
- They are heavier than wooden or wrought iron fences, making them harder to carry around and hard to move inside your home.
- They provide no fire resistance because a burning material such as oil can easily find its way through the gaps in the fence.
- The wires that make up the fence are not strong enough to withstand the heat from a fire.
- It is more expensive than wood or wrought iron fences.
- They are not widely used and are only used for temporary fences and, therefore, cannot last very long.
4. Brick Wall Fencing
Brick wall fencing is the most common type of fence in Britain, Ireland and the United States. This type of fencing was initially made of handmade bricks.
The bricks were hauled to the site by oxen in medieval times. The modern brick wall has an impermeable top layer of cementitious material and is made up of a modular sectional design.
These fences are long lasting and can be used as garden or security fences. The thicker the brick wall is, the more durable it will be. Brick walls are usually around 6 feet high.
These fences are also ideal if you’re looking for a fencing solution that blends in with your home.
Brick wall fencing can be broken into two separate categories: brick on top and brick on bottom. Brick on top makes the wall cheaper to maintain, but the bricks can get into gardens and walk ways.
Brick on bottom allows for easy access to the soil so that lawns may be grown, but the wall is more expensive to maintain. B
Advantages of Brick Wall Fencing
- It is strong and durable.
- It is easy to install and maintain, making it ideal for low-maintenance homes.
- It has a seamless appearance with low maintenance compared to chain link fences.
- Brick wall fences are more affordable than wrought iron and steel fences because they are not as heavy as the others, but can be prohibitively expensive if you’re looking for a very sturdy and durable fence that will last for many years.
Disadvantages of Brick Wall Fencing
- Brick wall fencing can be expensive, especially if you’re looking for a very sturdy, durable fence.
- It requires a lot of maintenance and repair because bricks have a tendency to crack or break.
- When brick wall fences are left idle or unattended due to improper care, they are exposed to the elements and may begin to deteriorate.
- Bricks can get into gardens and walkways if the brick wall fencing has brick on top installed
5. Wood Veneer Fencing
Wood veneer fences are constructed with thin wood strips glued onto a support beam made of another material such as metal or plastic. They are then finished with a stain and paint to enhance the wood’s color and texture.
Wood veneer fences are easy to repair when damaged, but they are more expensive compared to other types of fencing because of the cost of maintaining natural wood.
Wood veneer fences are available in a variety of colors, so you can choose one that best matches your home or meets your aesthetic requirements. If you want something permanent, this product is not for you since it requires regular maintenance in order for it not to crack or peel off.
Advantages of Wood Veneer Fencing
- Wood veneer fencing is easy to install and it is very durable.
- It is very attractive because it complements your house’s classic and modern design.
- You can find wood veneer fences in a wide variety of colors, so you can choose one that will best match your home or that will complement the style of your home.
- Wood veneer fencing is very strong, and it is not affected by harsh weather conditions.
Disadvantages of Wood Veneer Fencing
- It can be expensive because it requires special finishing treatments to make them more weather resistant and to enhance their appearance.
- It requires regular maintenance and repairing because wood has a tendency to crack and peel over time.
- You may need to replace them because they are susceptible to termites as well as other pests that can cause damage.
6. Concrete Fencing
Concrete is a strong material that can withstand wind, rain, and other weather conditions. It can also be used as a diagonal support or wall for fencing purposes. In some countries, it’s also available in natural colors such as light green, grey or brown.
There are different types of concrete fencing that cater to different needs. You can choose either a post and rail fence or an eye-beam system or wire mesh fence according to your demand and budget.
Concrete fencing tends to have a high maintenance cost. The nails used in concrete are not particularly strong, so you need to purchase extra nails from the market if you want your fence to last long.
Advantages of Concrete Fencing
- Concrete fencing is very strong.
- Concrete fences are very durable, as they require no maintenance.
- Concrete fences require no fence posts or rails for them to be installed on because they already have them built in, making it easy to install them regardless of the terrain where the poles are needed.
- It can accommodate different amounts of wind because concrete is tough against weather conditions and other such factors.
Disadvantages of Concrete Fencing
- Concrete is heavy and difficult to install, so you will need to hire some professional help to install them properly.
- It is expensive and requires a large budget if you want it to last for a long time.
- It requires regular maintenance to keep them looking good and working well.
- It is impossible to repair concrete fences with ease because they are very hard, making it necessary that you have to replace them instead if they are damaged by any means.
7. Vinyl Fencing
Vinyl fences are made of a synthetic material similar to plastic and can be adjusted easily for different heights.
These fences are also available in different color variations and patterns, so you can select the one that best matches your home’s theme or aesthetic requirements.
Advantages of Vinyl Fencing
- The fencing is easy to install, and it can be adjusted for different heights.
- The fencing is suitable for different weather conditions such as hot or cold for example.
- It covers a very wide area because it does not require posts or rails for installation.
- You can install vinyl fences indoors or outdoors, depending on the area you want them to cover in your house or home.
Disadvantages of Vinyl Fencing
- Vinyl is not very strong, so it requires extra protection from the weather.
- It can be expensive, depending on the model you choose and the amount of protection you need.
- It requires regular maintenance to keep it looking good and to prevent any damage that may occur on it, such as rips or tears in the material.
- It requires proper fitting and installation to ensure a tight weld at all times; otherwise, it will allow dogs or other animals to climb through it.
8. Precast Concrete Fencing
Precast concrete fencing is a kind of construction material that can be used to build fences. Precast concrete is produced by pouring concrete into forms or molds in a factory, and then it’s ready for transport.
This type of fencing is designed to withstand wind, weather and vandalism. It can also be used as an open railing system on top of a wall.
Like other kinds of fencing made from reinforced concrete, precast concrete fences can also be broken into two types: post-and-rail and eye-beam.
Advantages of Precast Concrete Fencing
- Precast concrete fencing is strong, and it’s easy to be installed and can withstand a lot of wind, rain or other weather conditions.
- Precast concrete fences are affordable and easy to install because they already have the posts and rails built into them.
- You can’t even see the posts that are used to anchor the reinforcing rods in the molds when precast concrete fences are installed in your house or surroundings due to their shape; hence, they won’t stick out like other types of fencing.
- The fences are very durable, and they can last for years without any needed repairs or maintenance.
Disadvantages of Precast Concrete Fencing
- Precast concrete fences are heavy and hard to carry around the house, so you will need to hire some professional help if you want to install them on your own.
- They require regular maintenance, just like other types of fencing made from reinforced concrete material.
- Precast concrete fences require proper installation to ensure that they last, and you will need the help of a professional.
- Precast concrete fencing can be expensive, depending on the model you choose and its design.
9. Vinyl Clad Fencing/ Vinyl Fencing or PVC Fencing
Vinyl fences are made from polythene. It is available in green, brown, white or blue colors that blend into any environment.
This type of fencing is ideal for people who don’t want to spend a lot of money on their home’s fence and those who need height adjustments for kids and their pets.
Vinyl fences are not waterproof, so they can break in harsh weather conditions. The board used in this older style of fencing is also toxic during the manufacturing process, so it should be replaced when it gets damaged.
Vinyl cladding is the process of covering an existing fence with vinyl boards. This makes the fence look and feel like it’s made of wood, but it saves you from having to paint it regularly.
Vinyl clad fencing is not recommended for commercial use though, as it cannot withstand harsh weather conditions and wind.
Advantages of Vinyl Clad Fencing
- Vinyl cladding is easy to install.
- Vinyl cladding is cheap and inexpensive, and it saves you money on painting your fence regularly.
Disadvantages of Vinyl Clad Fencing
- It can easily be damaged by ripping or tearing due to its fragile nature.
- It is not suitable for commercial use, as the vinyl can wear out very easily in harsh weather conditions and strong winds.
10. Aluminum Fencing
Aluminum fencing is made up of aluminum sheets that are 90 percent lighter than lead but can be as strong as steel or iron. Aluminum fencing can be made to last for as long as 50 years.
The aluminum used in this product is not recyclable, but you can repair or replace it if a piece of the fence gets damaged.
Aluminum fencing is available in different lengths and types, such as privacy fences, rail fences and decorative fences.
It has high visibility so that you may be able to build a fence that blends into your home’s design.
Advantages of Aluminum Fencing
- Aluminum fencing is extremely lightweight, so you may be able to install it easily by yourself or with assistance.
- Aluminum is strong and lasts for long periods of time without the need for any renovations or care.
- Aluminum is very affordable, and it can help you save money in the long run because it will require less maintenance than other fencing types.
- You may be able to buy aluminum fencing in different colors and patterns that will match your home’s design or theme comfortably.
Disadvantages of Aluminum Fencing
- If aluminum is not maintained properly, it can be damaged by water or sunlight.
- Aluminum fencing can be easily damaged if it is hit with a hard object or weapon such as a hammer, for example; thus, you may need to replace any damaged parts.
- Aluminum fencing is not suitable for commercial use because it can get worn out very easily from weather damage and harsh winds.
11. Barbed Wire Fencing
Barbed wire fences are made from galvanized steel and have sharp edges. The purpose of these fences is to keep animals out of your yard, but they can also be used as a decorative feature in the front of your house as well.
When it comes to your property, fencing can be used to create a virtual boundary. Installing a security fence, such as a barbed-wire fence, has the potential to protect the property by deterring unwanted animals and intruders.
It is affordable, durable, can be used for years, and there are no maintenance costs involved for this type
Advantages of Barbed Wire Fencing
- Barbed wire fences are strong and durable, and they work well to keep animals out of your yard.
- Barbed wire fences are very affordable, and they can save you money in the long run because they will require less maintenance than other types of fencing.
- You may be able to buy barbed wire fences in different colors and patterns that will match your home’s design or theme comfortably.
Disadvantages of Barbed Wire Fencing
- Barbed wire fences are not ideal for commercial use because they can easily be torn apart by human beings or wild animals.
- Barbed wire fences are not suitable for children’s safety, and you will need to keep them away from the fence if you want to maintain its quality.
- Barbed wire fences need regular maintenance and care to keep them in good condition, just like other types of fencing.
- Barbed wire is not weatherproof, so they will be easily damaged by strong winds or rain.
12. Chicken Wire Fences
Chicken wire fences are made of galvanized steel chicken wire and are available in different colors. Wire mesh fencing is more commonly used as a partition between two properties, such as a fence between houses and yards. It also keeps the dogs out in some areas, unless they’re smart enough to jump over it.
These fences do not have sharp edges, making them safe for children to climb and pets to play around while they’re on your property.
Advantages of Chicken Wire Fences
- Chicken wire fences are strong and durable, and they work well to keep animals out of your yard.
- Chicken wire is very affordable, and it can save you money in the long run because it will require less maintenance than other types of fencing.
- You may be able to buy chicken wire fences in different colors and patterns that will match your home’s design or theme comfortably.
- Chicken wire fences are safe for children and pets due to its soft edges.
Disadvantages of Chicken Wire Fences
- Chicken wire fences can be easily damaged by ripped or tearing if they’re not properly maintained.
- They require regular maintenance and care to keep them in good condition, just like other types of fencing.
- Chicken wire fences are not ideal for commercial use because they can easily be torn apart by human beings or wild animals.
13. Bamboo Fencing
Bamboo fencing is known for its durability, strength and beauty. Most bamboo products are made from natural bamboo, unlike PVC or other synthetic materials.
Bamboo fences are available in a variety of shapes, sizes and colors that fit different types of homes or environments.
Bamboo fences can be installed at any height as long as it’s possible to reach with machinery and contractors. The material is an organic product so it requires little maintenance when you’re looking at the fence’s health.
Advantages of Bamboo Fencing
- Bamboo fencing can last as long as 50–100 years.
- Bamboo fencing is easy to install, can be finished in less than one day and requires low maintenance.
- Bamboo is strong and lightweight, so you may be able to install it easily by yourself or with assistance.
- Bamboo fencing is available in different colors that will match your home’s design or theme comfortably.
Disadvantages of Bamboo Fencing
- Bamboo is not weatherproof, so it may be damaged by strong winds or rain.
- Bamboo fencing is not suitable for commercial use because it can get worn out very easily from weather damage and harsh winds.
- Bamboo fencing can easily be damaged if it’s hit with a hard object or weapon such as a hammer, for example; thus, you may need to replace any damaged parts.
17. Living Fence
Living fences are also known as living walls, vertical gardens or green walls. These types of fences are made up of vines that grow on a fence structure in a cluster.
Living fences require little to no maintenance and can be grown either vertically or horizontally.
Advantages of Live Fence
- Living fences are easy to install since they don’t require any specialized skills to work with.
- You can lean living fences on a wall or building for better support and stability.
- Living fences can be grown in a variety of ways, depending on your preference and the area you want to cover with your green wall.
Disadvantages of Live Fence
- You may need help from trained experts if you’re not sure how to grow a living fence yourself.
- Living fences are not suitable for commercial use because they can get damaged when installed outdoors, especially in windy areas.
- It is important to be aware that living fences may not be able to handle heavy loads or large amounts of pressure, so you may need to reinforce their structure to prevent any damage.
18. Electric Fencing
Invisible fences are used mostly to contain dogs through an invisible field of electricity. They are also known as electric fences
Typically, the installation involves placing a wire in a trench dug along the boundary the owner wishes to fence off. A wireless transmitter is also set up nearby to activate the wire. The final item in the fencing is a battery-powered collar to receive the signal from the wire.
The collar warns the animal when it’s near the boundary with a sound pitched only to the animal’s hearing
Electric fences are made of metal wires that are powered with electricity. These fences contain one or more wires that run along the top and bottom of the fence structure. Electric fences are a safe way to keep your pets from going near an area you don’t want them to be in.
Advantages of Electric Fencing
- Electric fences are the most effective fencing systems you can buy today.
- Electric fences are not harmful to the environment because they don’t emit toxic substances and are silent when they’re running.
- Electricity is an invisible barrier that prevents animals from going across it, so it’s safe for pets, children and other animals to go near it without any fear of getting hurt.
Disadvantages of Electric Fencing
- Electric fence systems need regular maintenance and care to keep them in good condition, just like other types of fencing.
- Electric fences are not available in every area, and they’re more expensive compared to other fencing materials.
- You may need to install an electric fence for each side of the property that you want to cover if you don’t live on a corner lot.
19. Custom Fencing
When you want a fence designed especially for your property or home, then you should consider having a custom fence installed.
There are many types of fences that can be installed to match your home’s design and architecture. You may also want to have special features built into the structure, like security mesh or electric fencing.
20. Recycled Fencing
Recycled fences are made of recycled materials such as wood or metal pieces that are put together to form a fence structure. This type of fence requires little to no maintenance, although it may not last as long as other kinds of fences.
The most common recycled fence material is wood, and it’s also the most expensive to purchase. If you’re planning a renovation project or a new home building project, then you can consider using recycled materials such as wood or metal instead of traditional fencing materials like concrete or metal.
Types of Privacy Fences
- Wood Privacy Fence
- Concrete And Wood Home Privacy Fence
- Metal Privacy Fence
- Natural Privacy Fence
- Traditional Privacy Fence
- Sleek Privacy Fence Wood
- Contemporary Privacy Fence
- Gabion and Masonry Privacy Fence
- Vinyl Privacy Fence
Types of Wooden Fences & Styles
Popular types of wood fences include;
- Cedar Fence
- 3 Pinewood Fence
- Oak Fence
- Cypress Wood Fence
- Lattice Fence.
- Picket Fence.
- Rail Fence.
What Is the Longest-Lasting Type of Wood Fence?
The most durable woods include redwood, cedar, and pressure-treated pine. If fashioned of rot-resistant wood, a fence can last for roughly 20 years.
Then, posts are usually the first to go; panels, on the other hand, tend to last longer because they don’t come into contact with the ground.
Fences must be able to survive exposure to the elements all year. As a result, use weather-resistant fasteners, such as hot-dipped galvanized or stainless-steel nails and screws, when assembling the parts.
Different Types of Fencing Wires & Styles
- Barbed wire
As illustrated below the fencing wires feature barbs at regular intervals. Barbed wires come in a variety of forms and designs, with differing thickness and spacing of the barbs and wires.
- Razor wire
Razor wire features sharp blades rather than pointed arrow-like barbs to give additional security against intruders.
They are bundled into various forms and shapes based on their placement in boundary fencing and uses.
- Chain link mesh
To make a mesh, wires are twisted, turned, and passed through one another. You can prolong or shorten the mesh length by removing or adding one twisted wire from the mesh.
When these twisted wires are joined and inserted in the boundary fencing, they produce a diamond shape.
They are available in a variety of wire diameters and with a variety of protective coatings.
- Welded wire mesh
They are made by machine welding and come in a variety of design patterns such as square, rectangular, diamond, weaving, and so on.
For non-metallic fence posts, you must use bolts, pins, and hooks to secure them, and you can weld them directly to the iron or MS posts to produce non-removable type bounds.
- Aluminum Electric Wire Fence
Aluminum wire is the best for carrying a charge. Aluminum conducts electricity four times better than steel wire. While it will cost more, aluminum wire does not rust like un-galvanized steel wire.