Cable Stayed Bridges | Cable Stayed Bridge Examples

Cable Stayed Bridges | Cable Stayed Bridge Examples

Cable Stayed Bridges | Cable Stayed Bridge Examples

Cable Stayed Bridges | Cable Stayed Bridge Examples

 

What is a Cable Stayed Bridge?

A cable-stayed bridge is a structural system with a continuous girder supported by inclined to stay cables from the towers.

 

From the mechanical point of view, the cable-stayed bridge is a continuous girder bridge supported by elastic supports.

 

The cable-stayed bridge ranks first for a span range of approximately from 115 to 600 m, which has a longer spanning capacity than that of cantilever bridges, arch bridges, and box caged bridges but shorter than that of a suspension bridge.

 

The earliest design of cable-stayed Bridge dates back to 1595, which is evident from the book of Machinae Novae. Several cable-stayed bridges were built in the early part of the 19th century. Still, it wasn’t until the 19 fifties that they started becoming prevalent like other bridge type, such as truss bridges, arch bridges, and suspension bridges.  

Several cable-stayed bridges collapsed due to a lack of understanding of such a system, particularly due to inadequate resistance. It wasn’t possible to tension the stay, and they would become slack under various load conditions.

 

A typical cable state of the bridge, this figure shows the main components of the cable state of the bridge, which is the tower, stayed cables, and Girders.

Basic Concept of Stayed Cable Bridge

 

The concept of cable-stayed bridges is simple as all the members and cable-stayed bridge mainly work on either tension or compression.

Cable Stayed Bridges

 

The stayed cable provides intermediate elastic support for carrying the vertical loads, acting on the main geared up to span a longer distance. To carry the load applied on the bridge deck, the cables need to sustain the tensile axial force, resulting in compression force and pulls pylons and girders.

Though there are also some bending moments or other forces in pylons and the main girders generally, their effects are much smaller than that of the axial forces.

 

It’s well known that actually loaded members are more efficient than flexible members, which contributes to the structural efficiency and economy of a cable-stayed bridge

 

Classifications and Configuration of Cable-Stayed Bridges.

 

This type of bridge can be classified based on three considerations.

Stay Cable Arrangements

According to the elongated Cable layout, the cable-stayed bridges can be classified into four types.

Mono Cable System.

The mono design uses a single cable from its towers and is one of the less types  of bridge used and  regularly built

 Fan Cable System 

 In  fan cable design,  all stayed cables connect to or pass over the top of the towers.

 

Modified Fan Cable System.

 Avoid difficulties in a fan cable system due to the laxation together of cable-stay the modified fan cable system is developed

Harp Cable System 

In the harp cable system, the cables are nearly parallel to each other so that the height of their fixed points on the tower is proportional to the distance around the tower to their positions on the deck.

 

Lateral Cable Arrangements 

The second consideration is the lateral cable arrangements and the lateral direction the cable system can be arranged as;

1.      One single plane above the centerline.

2.      Two planes, either vertical or inclined at the edges of the girder or 

3.      Three planes connect to the central line on both edges off together.

 

The Number of Spans or Towers

The third one is the number of spans or towers. The cable-stayed bridge can be designed as a single-span to expands three spans or multiple spans.

 

However, cable-stayed bridges having either three or two cable status spans are more widely used because the cable stays on the anchor pier and is important for the pylon’s stability.

When a bridge has more than three spans, the main problem is the lack of longitudinal restrained to the top of the intermediate pylons, which cannot be directly anchored to an approach pier.

 

Large deformations can occur in multiple span cable-stay of bridges under the live load. This problem can be solved in the following ways.

 

1.      By increasing the stiffness of pylons, as in using the A-frame embraced pylons.

2.      Using additional horizontal cables between tower tops directly transfers any out of balance forces to the anchor stays in the end spans. 

3.      By using additional cables to connect the top of the internal pilots to the adjacent pylons at deck level so that any out of balance forces are resisted by the stiffness of the pylon below deck 

4.      By using additional tie-down peers at span centers 

5.      By adding additional cables at the midspans,

 

Parts of Cable-Stayed Bridges

Cable-stayed bridges, are composed of cables, pylons, and bridge deck.

Bridge Cables

Cable stays are the key load carrying and transferring members in cable-stayed bridges. The main problems with the early cable-stayed bridges were deficiencies with the Anchorage system steel material and corrosion.

Bridge Pylons

The pylons can be designed as a single column projecting through the deck’s center but sometimes located on one side, such as in curved cable-stayed bridges.

 

Bridge Deck.

 

In general, the deck needs to resist both bending moments from the dead weight and live load on the axial force derived from the stay force’s horizontal component.

Therefore, unlike the deck in a suspension bridge, the deck can be designed as different sections or structural forms and cable-stay bridges.

Types of Bridge Decks

There are three types of decks.

1.      Steel deck 

2.      Concrete deck and

3.      Compose a deck.

Steel Deck

The steel deck was used for early cable-stayed bridges due to the high load-carrying capacity to weight ratio and larger span capacity between cable-stayed.

Besides, the reduction and deck weight can result in an economical design for large span bridges.

Concrete Deck Reinforces or Prestressed. 

Concrete decks can be made of precast elements, or they can be cast in a place. The concrete deck is suitable for medium spans because the cost of concrete is relatively low. Still, its weight increases the bridge’s dead load, thus requiring larger dimensions for cables, pylons, piers, and anchors structures.

Composite Deck 

Composite construction of a steel-concrete is a popular structural method. The optimal combination of the two most popular construction materials’ properties is steel and concrete, resulting in both safe and economic structures.

 

Analysis and Construction of Cable-Stayed Bridges. 

 

 Analysis of Cable-Stayed Bridge.

 Both static and seismic analysis should be performed on a cable-stayed bridge to analyze modern cable-stayed bridge finite element analysis; analysis is always necessary.

The pylon deck on the cable-stayed bridge will be moderate by a suitable element, and the fishbone model usually used to simulate the whole bridge.

 

The stayed can be represented with the small inertia on modified modules of elasticity that will model the stay’s Sag behavior. Besides, for considering the force transformation and load redistribution during the erection, stage by stay-based analysis is always necessary.

In addition to the static analysis, the dynamic analysis for determining a stayed Cable Bridge’s dynamic force, such as frequencies and vibration moods, should also be reaffirmed.

 

Construction of Stayed Cable Bridge

The first stay pylons and deck unit above the piers are erected and fixed to the piers. In the second stage, a new deck segment is erected by free cantilevering from the pylon, either symmetrical in both directions or into the main span. The stayed cables are installed and tension initially to relieve the bending moment in the deck. Stage two is repeated until the deck and middle span are connected.

 

The final stage before the connection of the deck mid-span cantilever condition should be carefully confirmed.

 

Pros and Cons of Stayed Cable Bridge

 

Pros of Stayed Cable Bridge

  •  The construction method is a simple cantilever method.
  • Typically built for a larger span and
  • Simple to design as opposed to the suspension bridge.

Cons of Stayed Cable Bridge

  • It may require a pier, or at least a tower on the other side of the site.
  • More susceptible to damage by wind forces.
  • Although cheaper than suspensions bridge, it can be more expensive for short spans than truss bridge Construction.

 

Summary Stayed Cable Bridge

 A cable-stayed bridge is very economical and has an elegant appearance due to the relatively small girder depth and has proved to be very competitive against other bridge types.

Besides, with the bridge design and construction development, more and more cable-stayed bridges are being built with longer spans.

Longest Cable Stayed Bridges in the World

 

 

Currently, the Russky Bridge in Russia is the largest cable-stayed bridge with walls longest this pan at 1104 m.(3,622 feets)

Cable Stayed Bridges

 

Longest and Famous Stayed Cable Bridge

No.

Stayed Cable Bridge

Span

Number
of
pylons

Year
completed

Country

MetresFeet
1Russky Bridge1,104 m3,622 ft22012Russia
2Hutong Yangtze River Bridge1,092 m3,583 ft22020China
3Sutong Yangtze River Bridge1,088 m3,570 ft22008China
4Stonecutters Bridge1,018 m3,340 ft22009China
5Edong Yangtze River Bridge926 m3,038 ft22010China
6Jiayu Yangtze River Bridge [zh]920 m3,018 ft22019China
7Tatara Bridge890 m2,920 ft21999Japan
8Pont de Normandie856 m2,808 ft21995France
9Chizhou Yangtze River Bridge [zh]828 m2,717 ft22019China
10Shishou Yangtze River Bridge [zh]820 m2,690 ft22019China
11Jiujiang Yangtze River Expressway Bridge818 m2,684 ft22013China
12Jingyue Yangtze River Bridge816 m2,677 ft22010China
13Second Wuhu Yangtze River Bridge [zh]806 m2,644 ft22017China
14Incheon Bridge800 m2,625 ft22009South Korea
14Yachi River Bridge800 m2,625 ft22016China
16Xiamen Zhangzhou Bridge780 m2,559 ft22013China
17Zhuankou Yangtze River Bridge [zh]760 m2,493 ft22017China
18Zolotoy Bridge737 m2,418 ft22012Russia
19Shanghai Yangtze River Bridge730 m2,395 ft22009China
19Third Wanzhou Yangtze River Bridge [zh]730 m2,395 ft22019China
21Duge Bridge720 m2,362 ft22016China
22Minpu Bridge708 m2,323 ft22009China
23Jiangshun Xi River Bridge [zh]700 m2,297 ft22015China
24Xiangshan Port Bridge688 m2,257 ft22012China
25Langqi Min River Bridge [zh]680 m2,231 ft22013China
25Second Fengdu Yangtze River Bridge [zh]680 m2,231 ft22017China
27Queensferry Crossing650 m2,133 ft32017United Kingdom
28Third Nanjing Yangtze Bridge648 m2,126 ft22005China
29Wangdong Yangtze River Bridge [zh]638 m2,093 ft22016China
30New Yalu River Bridge636 m2,087 ft22015China
North Korea
31Second Tongling Yangtze River Bridge [zh]630 m2,067 ft22015China
32Second Nanjing Yangtze Bridge628 m2,060 ft22001China
33Jintang Bridge620 m2,034 ft22009China
34Baishazhou Yangtze River Bridge618 m2,028 ft22000China
35Erqi Yangtze River Bridge616 m
(x2)
2,021 ft
(x2)
32011China
36Yongchuan Yangtze River Bridge [zh]608 m1,995 ft22014China
37Qingzhou Bridge605 m1,985 ft22001China
38Yangpu Bridge602 m1,975 ft21993China
39Nanjing Jiangxinzhou Yangtze River Bridge [zh]600 m
(x2)
1969 ft
(x2)
32020China
40Xupu Bridge590 m1,936 ft21997China
40Meiko-Chuo Bridge [ja]590 m1,936 ft21998Japan
42Yijishan Yangtze River Bridge [zh]588 m1929 ft22020China
43Taoyaomen Bridge580 m1,903 ft22003China
43Anqing Yangtze River Railway Bridge580 m1,903 ft22014China
43Liuguanghe Xiqian Expressway Bridge580 m1,903 ft22017China
46Nanxi Xianyuan Yangtze River Bridge [zh]572 m1,877 ft22019China
47Huanggang Yangtze River Bridge [zh]567 m1,860 ft22014China
48Yumenkou Yellow River Road Bridge [zh]565 m1854 ft22020China
49Rio–Antirrio bridge560 m
(x3)
1,837 ft
(x3)
42004Greece
49Haihuang Bridge [zh]560 m1,837 ft22017China
51Pingtang Bridge550 m
(x2)
1,804 ft32019China
51Can Tho Bridge550 m1,804 ft22010Vietnam
51Changmen Bridge [zh]550 m1,804 ft22019China
54Busan Harbor Bridge540 m1,772 ft22014South Korea
55La Pepa Bridge540 m1,772 ft22015Spain
56Pingtan Strait Rail-Road Bridge [zh]532 m1745 ft22020China
57Skarnsund Bridge530 m1,739 ft21991Norway
57Atlantic Bridge, Panama530 m1,739 ft22019[25]Panama
59Baluarte Bridge520 m1,706 ft22012Mexico
59Huangyi Yangtze River Bridge520 m1,706 ft22012China
61Queshi Bridge518 m1,699 ft21999China
61Gong’an Yangtze River Bridge [zh]518 m1,699 ft22018China
63Tsurumi Tsubasa Bridge510 m1,673 ft21994Japan
63Anqing Yangtze River Bridge510 m1,673 ft22004China
63First Saecheonnyeon Bridge [ko]510 m1,673 ft22019South Korea
66Hongshui River Huiluo Bridge [zh]508 m1,667 ft22018China
67Tianxingzhou Yangtze River Bridge504 m1,654 ft22008China
69Jingzhou Yangtze River Bridge
north bridge
500 m1,640 ft22002China
69Kanchanaphisek Bridge500 m1,640 ft22007Thailand
69Sungai Johor Bridge500 m1,640 ft22011Malaysia
69Mokpo Bridge [ko]500 m1,640 ft22012South Korea
69Hwatae Bridge [ko]500 m1,640 ft22015South Korea
69Honghe Bridge [zh]500 m

(x2)

1640 ft

(x2)

42020China
69Nanjing Shangba Jiajiang Bridge [zh]500 m1640 ft22020China

 

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