Cable Stayed Bridges | Cable Stayed Bridge Examples

Cable Stayed Bridges | Cable Stayed Bridge Examples

Cable Stayed Bridges | Cable Stayed Bridge Examples

Cable Stayed Bridges | Cable Stayed Bridge Examples

 

What is a Cable Stayed Bridge?

A cable-stayed bridge is a structural system with a continuous girder supported by inclined to stay cables from the towers.

 

From the mechanical point of view, the cable-stayed bridge is a continuous girder bridge supported by elastic supports.

 

The cable-stayed bridge ranks first for a span range of approximately from 115 to 600 m, which has a longer spanning capacity than that of cantilever bridges, arch bridges, and box caged bridges but shorter than that of a suspension bridge.

 

The earliest design of cable-stayed Bridge dates back to 1595, which is evident from the book of Machinae Novae. Several cable-stayed bridges were built in the early part of the 19th century. Still, it wasn’t until the 19 fifties that they started becoming prevalent like other bridge type, such as truss bridges, arch bridges, and suspension bridges.  

Several cable-stayed bridges collapsed due to a lack of understanding of such a system, particularly due to inadequate resistance. It wasn’t possible to tension the stay, and they would become slack under various load conditions.

 

A typical cable state of the bridge, this figure shows the main components of the cable state of the bridge, which is the tower, stayed cables, and Girders.

Basic Concept of Stayed Cable Bridge

 

The concept of cable-stayed bridges is simple as all the members and cable-stayed bridge mainly work on either tension or compression.

Cable Stayed Bridges

 

The stayed cable provides intermediate elastic support for carrying the vertical loads, acting on the main geared up to span a longer distance. To carry the load applied on the bridge deck, the cables need to sustain the tensile axial force, resulting in compression force and pulls pylons and girders.

Though there are also some bending moments or other forces in pylons and the main girders generally, their effects are much smaller than that of the axial forces.

 

It’s well known that actually loaded members are more efficient than flexible members, which contributes to the structural efficiency and economy of a cable-stayed bridge

 

Classifications and Configuration of Cable-Stayed Bridges.

 

This type of bridge can be classified based on three considerations.

Stay Cable Arrangements

According to the elongated Cable layout, the cable-stayed bridges can be classified into four types.

Mono Cable System.

The mono design uses a single cable from its towers and is one of the less types  of bridge used and  regularly built

 Fan Cable System 

 In  fan cable design,  all stayed cables connect to or pass over the top of the towers.

 

Modified Fan Cable System.

 Avoid difficulties in a fan cable system due to the laxation together of cable-stay the modified fan cable system is developed

Harp Cable System 

In the harp cable system, the cables are nearly parallel to each other so that the height of their fixed points on the tower is proportional to the distance around the tower to their positions on the deck.

 

Lateral Cable Arrangements 

The second consideration is the lateral cable arrangements and the lateral direction the cable system can be arranged as;

1.      One single plane above the centerline.

2.      Two planes, either vertical or inclined at the edges of the girder or 

3.      Three planes connect to the central line on both edges off together.

 

The Number of Spans or Towers

The third one is the number of spans or towers. The cable-stayed bridge can be designed as a single-span to expands three spans or multiple spans.

 

However, cable-stayed bridges having either three or two cable status spans are more widely used because the cable stays on the anchor pier and is important for the pylon’s stability.

When a bridge has more than three spans, the main problem is the lack of longitudinal restrained to the top of the intermediate pylons, which cannot be directly anchored to an approach pier.

 

Large deformations can occur in multiple span cable-stay of bridges under the live load. This problem can be solved in the following ways.

 

1.      By increasing the stiffness of pylons, as in using the A-frame embraced pylons.

2.      Using additional horizontal cables between tower tops directly transfers any out of balance forces to the anchor stays in the end spans. 

3.      By using additional cables to connect the top of the internal pilots to the adjacent pylons at deck level so that any out of balance forces are resisted by the stiffness of the pylon below deck 

4.      By using additional tie-down peers at span centers 

5.      By adding additional cables at the midspans,

 

Parts of Cable-Stayed Bridges

Cable-stayed bridges, are composed of cables, pylons, and bridge deck.

Bridge Cables

Cable stays are the key load carrying and transferring members in cable-stayed bridges. The main problems with the early cable-stayed bridges were deficiencies with the Anchorage system steel material and corrosion.

Bridge Pylons

The pylons can be designed as a single column projecting through the deck’s center but sometimes located on one side, such as in curved cable-stayed bridges.

 

Bridge Deck.

 

In general, the deck needs to resist both bending moments from the dead weight and live load on the axial force derived from the stay force’s horizontal component.

Therefore, unlike the deck in a suspension bridge, the deck can be designed as different sections or structural forms and cable-stay bridges.

Types of Bridge Decks

There are three types of decks.

1.      Steel deck 

2.      Concrete deck and

3.      Compose a deck.

Steel Deck

The steel deck was used for early cable-stayed bridges due to the high load-carrying capacity to weight ratio and larger span capacity between cable-stayed.

Besides, the reduction and deck weight can result in an economical design for large span bridges.

Concrete Deck Reinforces or Prestressed. 

Concrete decks can be made of precast elements, or they can be cast in a place. The concrete deck is suitable for medium spans because the cost of concrete is relatively low. Still, its weight increases the bridge’s dead load, thus requiring larger dimensions for cables, pylons, piers, and anchors structures.

Composite Deck 

Composite construction of a steel-concrete is a popular structural method. The optimal combination of the two most popular construction materials’ properties is steel and concrete, resulting in both safe and economic structures.

 

Analysis and Construction of Cable-Stayed Bridges. 

 

 Analysis of Cable-Stayed Bridge.

 Both static and seismic analysis should be performed on a cable-stayed bridge to analyze modern cable-stayed bridge finite element analysis; analysis is always necessary.

The pylon deck on the cable-stayed bridge will be moderate by a suitable element, and the fishbone model usually used to simulate the whole bridge.

 

The stayed can be represented with the small inertia on modified modules of elasticity that will model the stay’s Sag behavior. Besides, for considering the force transformation and load redistribution during the erection, stage by stay-based analysis is always necessary.

In addition to the static analysis, the dynamic analysis for determining a stayed Cable Bridge’s dynamic force, such as frequencies and vibration moods, should also be reaffirmed.

 

Construction of Stayed Cable Bridge

The first stay pylons and deck unit above the piers are erected and fixed to the piers. In the second stage, a new deck segment is erected by free cantilevering from the pylon, either symmetrical in both directions or into the main span. The stayed cables are installed and tension initially to relieve the bending moment in the deck. Stage two is repeated until the deck and middle span are connected.

 

The final stage before the connection of the deck mid-span cantilever condition should be carefully confirmed.

 

Pros and Cons of Stayed Cable Bridge

 

Pros of Stayed Cable Bridge

  •  The construction method is a simple cantilever method.
  • Typically built for a larger span and
  • Simple to design as opposed to the suspension bridge.

Cons of Stayed Cable Bridge

  • It may require a pier, or at least a tower on the other side of the site.
  • More susceptible to damage by wind forces.
  • Although cheaper than suspensions bridge, it can be more expensive for short spans than truss bridge Construction.

 

Summary Stayed Cable Bridge

 A cable-stayed bridge is very economical and has an elegant appearance due to the relatively small girder depth and has proved to be very competitive against other bridge types.

Besides, with the bridge design and construction development, more and more cable-stayed bridges are being built with longer spans.

Longest Cable Stayed Bridges in the World

 

 

Currently, the Russky Bridge in Russia is the largest cable-stayed bridge with walls longest this pan at 1104 m.(3,622 feets)

Cable Stayed Bridges

 

Longest and Famous Stayed Cable Bridge

No.

Stayed Cable Bridge

Span

Number
of
pylons

Year
completed

Country

Metres Feet
1 Russky Bridge 1,104 m 3,622 ft 2 2012 Russia
2 Hutong Yangtze River Bridge 1,092 m 3,583 ft 2 2020 China
3 Sutong Yangtze River Bridge 1,088 m 3,570 ft 2 2008 China
4 Stonecutters Bridge 1,018 m 3,340 ft 2 2009 China
5 Edong Yangtze River Bridge 926 m 3,038 ft 2 2010 China
6 Jiayu Yangtze River Bridge [zh] 920 m 3,018 ft 2 2019 China
7 Tatara Bridge 890 m 2,920 ft 2 1999 Japan
8 Pont de Normandie 856 m 2,808 ft 2 1995 France
9 Chizhou Yangtze River Bridge [zh] 828 m 2,717 ft 2 2019 China
10 Shishou Yangtze River Bridge [zh] 820 m 2,690 ft 2 2019 China
11 Jiujiang Yangtze River Expressway Bridge 818 m 2,684 ft 2 2013 China
12 Jingyue Yangtze River Bridge 816 m 2,677 ft 2 2010 China
13 Second Wuhu Yangtze River Bridge [zh] 806 m 2,644 ft 2 2017 China
14 Incheon Bridge 800 m 2,625 ft 2 2009 South Korea
14 Yachi River Bridge 800 m 2,625 ft 2 2016 China
16 Xiamen Zhangzhou Bridge 780 m 2,559 ft 2 2013 China
17 Zhuankou Yangtze River Bridge [zh] 760 m 2,493 ft 2 2017 China
18 Zolotoy Bridge 737 m 2,418 ft 2 2012 Russia
19 Shanghai Yangtze River Bridge 730 m 2,395 ft 2 2009 China
19 Third Wanzhou Yangtze River Bridge [zh] 730 m 2,395 ft 2 2019 China
21 Duge Bridge 720 m 2,362 ft 2 2016 China
22 Minpu Bridge 708 m 2,323 ft 2 2009 China
23 Jiangshun Xi River Bridge [zh] 700 m 2,297 ft 2 2015 China
24 Xiangshan Port Bridge 688 m 2,257 ft 2 2012 China
25 Langqi Min River Bridge [zh] 680 m 2,231 ft 2 2013 China
25 Second Fengdu Yangtze River Bridge [zh] 680 m 2,231 ft 2 2017 China
27 Queensferry Crossing 650 m 2,133 ft 3 2017 United Kingdom
28 Third Nanjing Yangtze Bridge 648 m 2,126 ft 2 2005 China
29 Wangdong Yangtze River Bridge [zh] 638 m 2,093 ft 2 2016 China
30 New Yalu River Bridge 636 m 2,087 ft 2 2015 China
North Korea
31 Second Tongling Yangtze River Bridge [zh] 630 m 2,067 ft 2 2015 China
32 Second Nanjing Yangtze Bridge 628 m 2,060 ft 2 2001 China
33 Jintang Bridge 620 m 2,034 ft 2 2009 China
34 Baishazhou Yangtze River Bridge 618 m 2,028 ft 2 2000 China
35 Erqi Yangtze River Bridge 616 m
(x2)
2,021 ft
(x2)
3 2011 China
36 Yongchuan Yangtze River Bridge [zh] 608 m 1,995 ft 2 2014 China
37 Qingzhou Bridge 605 m 1,985 ft 2 2001 China
38 Yangpu Bridge 602 m 1,975 ft 2 1993 China
39 Nanjing Jiangxinzhou Yangtze River Bridge [zh] 600 m
(x2)
1969 ft
(x2)
3 2020 China
40 Xupu Bridge 590 m 1,936 ft 2 1997 China
40 Meiko-Chuo Bridge [ja] 590 m 1,936 ft 2 1998 Japan
42 Yijishan Yangtze River Bridge [zh] 588 m 1929 ft 2 2020 China
43 Taoyaomen Bridge 580 m 1,903 ft 2 2003 China
43 Anqing Yangtze River Railway Bridge 580 m 1,903 ft 2 2014 China
43 Liuguanghe Xiqian Expressway Bridge 580 m 1,903 ft 2 2017 China
46 Nanxi Xianyuan Yangtze River Bridge [zh] 572 m 1,877 ft 2 2019 China
47 Huanggang Yangtze River Bridge [zh] 567 m 1,860 ft 2 2014 China
48 Yumenkou Yellow River Road Bridge [zh] 565 m 1854 ft 2 2020 China
49 Rio–Antirrio bridge 560 m
(x3)
1,837 ft
(x3)
4 2004 Greece
49 Haihuang Bridge [zh] 560 m 1,837 ft 2 2017 China
51 Pingtang Bridge 550 m
(x2)
1,804 ft 3 2019 China
51 Can Tho Bridge 550 m 1,804 ft 2 2010 Vietnam
51 Changmen Bridge [zh] 550 m 1,804 ft 2 2019 China
54 Busan Harbor Bridge 540 m 1,772 ft 2 2014 South Korea
55 La Pepa Bridge 540 m 1,772 ft 2 2015 Spain
56 Pingtan Strait Rail-Road Bridge [zh] 532 m 1745 ft 2 2020 China
57 Skarnsund Bridge 530 m 1,739 ft 2 1991 Norway
57 Atlantic Bridge, Panama 530 m 1,739 ft 2 2019[25] Panama
59 Baluarte Bridge 520 m 1,706 ft 2 2012 Mexico
59 Huangyi Yangtze River Bridge 520 m 1,706 ft 2 2012 China
61 Queshi Bridge 518 m 1,699 ft 2 1999 China
61 Gong’an Yangtze River Bridge [zh] 518 m 1,699 ft 2 2018 China
63 Tsurumi Tsubasa Bridge 510 m 1,673 ft 2 1994 Japan
63 Anqing Yangtze River Bridge 510 m 1,673 ft 2 2004 China
63 First Saecheonnyeon Bridge [ko] 510 m 1,673 ft 2 2019 South Korea
66 Hongshui River Huiluo Bridge [zh] 508 m 1,667 ft 2 2018 China
67 Tianxingzhou Yangtze River Bridge 504 m 1,654 ft 2 2008 China
69 Jingzhou Yangtze River Bridge
north bridge
500 m 1,640 ft 2 2002 China
69 Kanchanaphisek Bridge 500 m 1,640 ft 2 2007 Thailand
69 Sungai Johor Bridge 500 m 1,640 ft 2 2011 Malaysia
69 Mokpo Bridge [ko] 500 m 1,640 ft 2 2012 South Korea
69 Hwatae Bridge [ko] 500 m 1,640 ft 2 2015 South Korea
69 Honghe Bridge [zh] 500 m

(x2)

1640 ft

(x2)

4 2020 China
69 Nanjing Shangba Jiajiang Bridge [zh] 500 m 1640 ft 2 2020 China

 

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