What is Lintel Level | 9 Different Types of Lintel Beams | Precast Concrete Lintel Beam Size

What is Lintel Level | 9 Different Types of Lintel Beams |  Precast Concrete Lintel Beam Size

What is Lintel Level | 9 Different Types of Lintel Beams | Precast Concrete Lintel Beam Size

What is Lintel Level | Doors Lintels & Window Lintels | Lintel Beam Design | Precast Concrete Lintels Sizes

What is the Lintel Level

Lintel can be defined as the structural members of the superstructure that lies in between the uppermost portion of the window or door and top slab.

The lintel level is basically the height or vertical measurement from the bottom edge to the top horizontal component of a door or window, and it is provided above the windows and doors to transfer the upper wall load or weight to the surrounding wall.

A lintel is a horizontal structural member that spans an opening in a wall or the space between two vertical supports. It is used mostly above windows and doors, which are both weak areas in the framework of a building.

Lintel can be load-bearing, a decorative structural element or can be a combined decorative load-bearing element.

Lintels are often made of wood, steel, or concrete.

Timber is inexpensive, abundant, and easily cut to size on-site. It is, however, typically only suitable for tiny apertures with light loads.

Lintels made of precast concrete are cost effective and offer a strong foundation for buildings such as masonry over door and window openings. They are suitable for a variety of surface treatments.

Steel lintels are typically constructed from pre-galvanized steel that has been cut and rolled or pressed into the desired shape.

Steel lintels have an advantage over concrete lintels in that they are often lighter and easier to handle on-site. The lintel can be designed to disappear over the aperture.

Steel is extremely adaptable and may be custom-made to fit any architectural need, whether arched, in a corner, or forming a bay window, for example.

Calculating the kind of the weight to be sustained is vital for developing the type of lintel required. This structure involves both dead and live load.

The term “dead loads” refers to the static mass of structural components such as floor coverings, roof tiles, and masonry, whereas “imposed loads” refers to the weight of furniture, fixtures, and people.

Lintels should have enough end support, and the length of a lintel for a brick wall is generally determined by measuring the whole width of the structural aperture and adding 150 mm for end bearings on each end.

If lintels or end bearings are not specified properly, they might result in cracking in the ornamentation or the building itself, which can eventually result in structural failure and collapse.

Lintel Level

What is Lintel Level?

It is the piece of the superstructure between the top slab and the window or door’s highest portion, in other words, it is the area above the window or door lintel.

Lintel level assists in transferring upward wall loads to the adjacent wall. Lintels can be load-bearing , ornamental architectural components or can be integrated with other decorative structural elements.

The main purpose of the lintel level is to distribute the applied weight away from the wall above the doors and windows. It also acts to fortify the apertures against seismic waves, dead loads, and other hazards

Lintel Level

 

Window Lintels

Window lintels are a key component to making any window’s frame stable. It is the part of the wall that is immediately above a window.

Window lintel is what helps support the weight of the wall and roof, and it can be found on homes dating back to antiquity. The lintel is typically made of stone, brick, precast concrete unit, or some combination thereof.

Lintels are typically used to brace the weight of the window frame when it gets too heavy for the top part of the frame to hold it up.

They can be made from various materials, including masonry, wood, or metal. Window lintels can be found in residential homes, office buildings, skyscrapers, and many other buildings.

Window Lintels are when you use a material such as masonry, wood, or metal to brace the weight of the window frame. They are typically used for when the top part of the frame can’t hold the weight.

Window lintels have been used for centuries because they serve many purposes. One of the most important considerations in choosing a window lintel is the size.

Too small and it will not be able to support the weight of the bricks laid on top; too large and there may be a gap under the lintel that leaves the structure vulnerable to rain or cold air.

In the West, window lintels are most frequently constructed of wood, meaning that they are limited to smaller sizes since wood cannot support the weight of large bricks or stone on top.

Brick masonry in the East can weigh thousands of pounds and so window lintels are commonly larger than those in the West.

Another important consideration is how quickly a lintel is constructed, as this affects both cost and weather exposure.

Door Lintel

What is a Door Lintel?

A door lintel is a horizontal beam or other structural member on the opening side of a door in a building, found in both ancient and modern architecture. They can be placed horizontally or near the top of the door frame.

They are especially prevalent in load-bearing masonry walls, where they help spread the weight of the roof.

A door lintel is a horizontal beam that spans the opening of a doorway and supports the weight of a brickwork above the door as well as the roof structure. It is often made of stone, wood, or metal. It is usually near the top of a doorframe.

It also helps to keep the door stable and is important to keep the door from sagging onto the ground and give the door stability. Lintels may be constructed of brick, stone, or wood.

Structural Lintel Width

Measure the size of the open space between the walls where the door/window frame is fitted. Add a minimum of 150mm to each end.

For example, for a structural opening or clear span of 1,800mm, the minimum lintel length required will be 1,800 + 150 + 150 = 2,100mm.

Lintel Level

Types of Lintels

1. Brick Lintel

Brick lintels are used in applications where the majority of the building is done in brickwork. Steel bars placed on the tension side of the bricklayer and rich cement are used to fill in the building joints where the steel bars were placed.

Joints should have a minimum width of three times the diameter of the reinforcing bar utilized. Bricks should be of top standard.  Lintels of this brick   type may be used for spans up to 1000 mm and have a thickness of about 100 mm and 200 mm

Brick Lintel Size Details

The brick lintel level should have a minimum depth of 20 cm and, the width should be equal to the thickness opening.

Brick lintels are however not particularly strong. As a result, they are only appropriate for low weights and short apertures or lengths of less than one meter (1000MM).

Advantages of Brick Lintel

  1. Brick lintels are very simple to install.
  2. They can be modified according to site conditions.
  3. Brick lintels are relatively inexpensive and easy to design and build, and much less than the cost of other types of lintels.

Disadvantages of Brick Lintel

  1. The brick lintel is restricted to spans up to about 1500 mm in most instances, so it can be used only where the building height is not critical.
  2. Brick lintels are heavy and large in overall size than steel lintels.
  3. The brick lintel may become weak under heavy loads such as snow and ice.
  4. Brick lintels need intensive maintenance and repair work, especially from water, wind, and rain damage

2. Timber Lintels

Timber lintels are made up of heavy timbers or logs that are sawn into boards and used in construction to support spans between bearing walls or load-bearing structures.

In this system, load-bearing walls are constructed mainly of wood, but they have to be reinforced with steel or other metal to be structurally sound and stable.

Wood /Timber Lintel Size Measurements

Lintels of this type may be used for short spans and  have a thickness of about 100 mm and 200 mm.

A wooden lintel is a sturdy timber beam of at least 200 mm × 200 mm (8 inches by 8 inches) that is used to support the second story above a window or door.

Advantages of Timber Lintel

  1. Timber lintels can be customized according to site conditions.
  2. They can be modified according to site conditions.
  3. Timber lintels are inexpensive and easy to design and build, cheaper than brick lintels alone, and less expensive than steel lintels.
  4. Wood lintels are very simple to install.
  5. They can be easily customized depending on the wood type and size.

Disadvantages of Timber Lintel

  1. The timber lintel is restricted to spans up to about 1500 mm in most instances, so it can be used only where the building height is not critical.
  2. Timber lintels are heavy and large in overall size than steel lintels.
  3. Timber lintels need intensive maintenance and repair work, especially from water, wind, and rain damage. They are susceptible to catching fire and susceptible to decay because of rot or termites.
  4. The timber is not ideal for load-bearing applications.

3. Steel Lintel

The steel lintel level has a steel angle or rolled joints. Steel lintel level is often used when the load is heavy, or the considerable length of the opening.

Steel joists are often fastened to the concrete to protect the steel from rust and fire. I section steel is used as lintel and load carry capacity is higher than other types of lintels.

Steel lintels are designed to carry a great deal of weight and serve many functions in the same structure.

Steel Lintel Level

Steel lintel are suitable for any span length of openings as well as bearing any load. They are extensively used in recent times and substitute practically all other materials for lintels.

Clear span is very simply the length of the opening. If you have a clear span of 1200mm, you will need a 1500mm length lintel to accommodate the required 150mm span on each side of the opening.

 Advantages of Steel Lintel

  1. They are highly capable of carrying heavy loads,
  2. Allow flexibility in the design,
  3. The cost is less than a lintel made of wood or timber
  4. Steel lintels have an advantage over concrete lintels in that they are often lighter and easier to handle on-site
  5. They can be utilized for long spans or more in height without problems of warping, twisting, or other structural deformations that occur with timber and brick lintels when used at those heights.

Disadvantages of Steel Lintel

  1. They are hard to get to, and therefore expensive to repair,
  2. They are sensitive to thermal expansion and contraction that can arise due to temperature variations between summer and winter seasons and hot or cold winds,
  3. Their installation must be done well in advance of the structure’s construction, for they require a great deal of care during installation and manufacture into the final product.
  4. Their installation requires equipment and personnel that are not easily available in small towns or villages where inexperienced labor construction is mostly done.
  5. Their strength is not uniform across their width, so they must be properly designed to withstand the loads they will carry over time.

4. Concrete Lintel

The concrete lintel is a type of lintel made of concrete, used in building construction, and is commonly used to span the distance between two posts. These lintels can be either reinforced or non-reinforced.

Advantages of Concrete Lintel

  1. They are very long lasting when used in areas that are not exposed to water or moisture.
  2. They are very simple to install,
  3. They are also relatively easy to repair,
  4. They can be left permanently in place without much cost of maintenance or disruption to traffic and other activities.
  5. They do not require a very high working load since they have a high minimum component load capacity per square meter.

Disadvantages of Concrete Lintel

  1. They are not ideal for rocky areas, as they require a strong foundation to be able to withstand the loads placed upon them.
  2. They are not ideal in areas where moisture is likely to occur, such as coastal areas, valleys, and those near the oceans or large rivers.
  3. They require a lot of maintenance, especially after they have been in place for long periods of time or when exposed to water and moisture
  4. They are not ideal for highly seismic areas.
  5. They require a greater amount of resources and energy to manufacture.
  6. They are not very efficient in using materials since they require concrete to be placed over more than half the surface area. However, the cost is much lower than that required by other types of lintels that span wider openings or higher distances with the same capacity.

5. Reinforced Concrete Lintel

A reinforced concrete lintel is a form of concrete lintel used in construction where the concrete lintel is reinforced with reinforcement bars.

Such a lintel is used in an opening to carry load, ranging from a tiny window to a huge doorway, and sometimes even an entire house.

Concrete has the ability to flex under load. The ability of the concrete to flex under load depends on many factors, including the degree of compaction when it was mixed.

Reinforced Concrete Cement Lintel Size Details

The top of the Reinforced Concrete Cement RCC lintel steel is reinforced with 12mm diameter reinforcing bars (D12).

Additionally, the diameter of the bottom reinforcing bar is maintained at 10 mm. Stirrups used to be 6 mm or 8 mm in diameter, with a vertical spacing of 125 mm to 150 mm.

Lintels made of precast concrete are recommended for spans of up to 2 meters (2000mm). Again, a depth of 150mm is deemed safe for a span of 1.2 meters. As a general guideline, add 25 mm for every extra 300 mm span.

Generally, these lintels are cast-in-situ for longer spans, as extra reinforcing is required in lintels owing to significant loading.

Advantages of Reinforced Concrete Lintel

  1. They are very strong as compared to other lintels that are made of other materials,
  2. They can carry heavy loads.
  3. They can serve as a smaller version of steel lintels.
  4. They are very long lasting if used in areas which are not exposed to water or moisture.
  5. They are very simple and easy to install,
  6. They can be repaired easily and very cost effectively.

Disadvantages of Reinforced Concrete Lintel

  1. Their installation can be very complex and require more curing time.
  2. They are very susceptible to wind and seismic damage,
  3. They require a large amount of maintenance when exposed to water and moisture,
  4. They may not ideal for highly seismic areas.
  5. They require a high working load since they have a minimum component load capacity of 2,000 kg per square meter.
  6. Reinforced concrete lintels are sensitive to climatic changes, especially those that occur in hot or cold weather

6. Masonry Lintel

A masonry lintel is a type of lintel made of bricks or stone blocks with mortar holding them together.

These lintels are used in building construction, and are common in arch bridges and arches, as well as masonry buildings like chimneys and fireplaces.

Advantages of Masonry Lintel

  1. They are very strong and highly capable of carrying heavy loads,
  2. They are very inexpensive.
  3. They allow flexibility in the design,
  4. They can be used for spans up to 2000 mm in width and 30 ft or more in height without problems of warping, twisting, or other structural deformations that occur with timber and brick lintels when used at those heights,
  5. They require very little water and moisture.

Disadvantages of Masonry Lintel

  1. They are not ideal for areas that are exposed to water or moisture, such as near the oceans or large rivers, coastlines, valleys, or deserts for they are easily damaged by moisture.
  2. They require a lot of time and labor to install,
  3. They are not ideal for highly seismic areas.
  4. They are not efficient in using material since they require mortar to be placed over more than half the surface area, thus incurring greater cost for the manufacturer as well as the end user.

7.  Catnic Lintel

The catnic lintel is a type of lintel that is made of steel. It is usually used by engineers to provide support to buildings, particularly those that are brick or masonry based.

Catnic lintels are designed to carry a great deal of weight and serve many functions in the same structure.

Advantages of Catnic Lintel

  1. They are very strong and durable.
  2. They can be used to span a great distance without problems of warping or twisting of the structure.
  3. They have no requirement for a strong foundation, as they serve to provide support only.

Disadvantages of Catnic Lintel

  1. They are not very efficient in their use of materials since they do not have any strength or capacity to carry heavy loads.
  2. They require a lot of resources and energy to manufacture.
  3. They require a great deal of maintenance and repair in areas that are exposed to water and moisture.
  4. They can only be used in masonry or brick structures; they are not suitable for concrete applications.
  5. They are not very efficient in their use of materials since they require the steel to span much wider openings than a concrete lintel of the same size and capacity.
  6. Their installation is very costly and can be extremely complex. It requires a crane or large lifting equipment to help with installing these heavy lintels into place without damaging the masonry or brick structure on which the lintel will support the weight.

8.  Stone Lintel

A stone lintel is a type of beam made of stone, usually used in traditional buildings, usually by the ancient Egyptians or other early civilizations.

They were used to carry heavy loads over short distances like walls or passageways. Stone lintels are very long-lasting when used in areas that are not exposed to water or moisture.

Stone Lintel Size Details

Due to the low tensile strength of stone, it cannot resist transverse forces. Thus, stone lintels should never be used for openings greater than one meter (1000 mm) in span unless they are joined by supporting arches; otherwise, an unusually deep lintel would be required.

The average thickness of a stone lintel is 80mm, although as a general guideline, it should be 40mm every 300mm span.

Advantages of Stone Lintel

  1. They are very simple to install
  2. They can be left permanently in place without much cost of maintenance or disruption to traffic and other activities.
  3. They do durable

Disadvantages of Stone Lintel

  1. They are not ideal for areas with low soil safe bearing capacity, as they require a strong foundation to be able to withstand the loads placed upon them.
  2. They are not ideal in areas where moisture is likely to occur, such as coastal areas, valleys, and those near the oceans or large rivers.

9. Prestressed Concrete

At the construction site, the prestressed concrete lintel is used to increase work speed. The load-carrying capacity of prestressed concrete is higher compared to the RCC lintel.

Precast lintels are suitable for span lengths up to two meters (2000mm); if the opening width exceeds two meters, the lintel will be cast-in-situ.

Prestressed concrete lintels are available in a range of lengths including: 600mm, 900mm, 1200mm, 1350mm, 1500mm and 1800mm.

Precast Concrete Lintels Sizes

Concrete lintels are prestressed meaning they have heightened strength by way of steel wires, which have been set to high tension running through the middle of the lintel. They are designed to support:

  • Masonry loads
  • Uniformly distributed timber floor loads
  • Uniformly distributed roof loads
  • Concrete floor loads
  • Attic truss loads
  • Point loads: compound trusses, steel beams, etc.

There are range of Prestressed Concrete Lintel that are designed to provide a low cost and resilient masonry support for door and window openings.

The prestressed casting system used to develop lintels ensures consistent high quality and a smooth finish providing safer manual handling.

Some measurements include

  1. Prestressed Concrete Lintel  with 2400mm span ( 100 x 65 x 2400mm)
  2. Concrete lintels with 3300mm span
  3. Concrete lintels with 4000mm span
  4. Concrete lintels with 3000mm span

What is the Maximum Span for a Concrete Lintel?

A concrete lintel has a maximum span that is determined by its width and height. For example, a lintel that is 24 inches by 12 inches is limited to having a maximum span of 3 feet. It is recommended to use a lintel as long as 8 feet or less for spans of 3-4 feet.

When designing for larger spans, it is more cost efficient to use multiple smaller lintels instead of one large lintel.

Appropriate span lengths for lintel for a residential dwelling are rated for the span at least 40 inches, and up to 120 inches.

The majority of lintels are made of structural steel, and they are intended to bridge spans of up to 12 feet.

So, what’s the largest span you need to be concerned with?

A maximum span for a concrete lintel is just a little over 10 feet. If you have a larger span, you’ll need to use structural steel for the lintel.

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