What Is Column in Construction | Types of Column | Difference Between Beam and Column

What Is Column in Construction | Types of Column | Difference Between Beam and Column

What Is Column in Construction | Types of Column | Difference Between Beam and Column

What Is Column in Construction | Types of Column in Construction  | How To Build a Concrete Column

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Column in Construction

What is a Column in Construction? 

A column can be defined as a vertical structural member which transmits the loads from beam of the building to foundation. Columns are the essential compression structural members which transfer the loads from the top structural level to the lowers passing through the foundations. A column is one of the crucial structural members.

In structural engineering, a column is a structural member that transmits the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below by compression. A column, in other terms, is a compression member.

The term column refers to a shaped support (the shaft of the column) with a cap and a base or plinth made of stone, or appearing to be constructed of concrete.

A small wooden or metal support is sometimes referred to as a post, and supports with a rectangular or other non-round form are commonly referred to as piers.

Columns may be built to withstand lateral forces for the purposes of wind or earthquake engineering. Because of the equivalent stress conditions, other compression members are frequently referred to be “columns.” Columns are commonly used to support beams or arches that support the upper portions of walls or ceilings.

In architecture, a “column” is a structural element with proportional and artistic features.

A column can also be a decorative element that is not required for structural purposes; many columns are engaged, that is, they form part of a wall.

How To Build a Concrete Column/Reinforced Cement Concrete Columns?

The construction of the RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete) Column is based on the following four phases of works –

1. Column Layout Work

This is the starting point in the construction of a column. The position of columns is decided practically in the field at this step. It is achieved by laying rope in accordance with the grids depicted shown in the drawing, and then marking the placement of columns.

2. Column Reinforcement Work

In this step, the steel reinforcement bars are placed inside the columns in accordance with the details specified in B.S.C Manual of Concrete Structure.

3. Column Formwork

Columns bear the load of the structure and are thus vital to position them for verticality so that load is accurately transmitted. The column shuttering must be sturdy enough to withstand the pressure of fresh concrete and remain in place during the concreting process.

3. Concrete Placing Work/Pouring Concrete into Column.

For casting columns, the procedure is straightforward. Machine-mix concrete is appropriate for small amounts of concrete volume, whereas ready-mix concrete is recommended for massive quantities of concrete volume.

Types of Column in Construction

1.  Planted Columns

What is a Planted Column?

planted column is a vertical compression member supported on a non-axial bearing member (member designed to withstand force in a perpendicular direction) such as slabs or beams to provide the structural requirements without sacrificing interior and architectural needs.

What is Column

However, only a few studies about the behaviour of planted columns and the supported beam may not be advisable.

2. Concrete Columns

A concrete column is one of the key structural elements which contributes to the safe structural performance of a building, used mainly in low-rise residential buildings.

A column in concrete construction is one in which the compression side of the member is clad with concrete and the horizontal load transfer takes place through embedded steel bars.

It can be placed on a concrete slab or a beam or combinations of these.  The limited application of these columns as compared to their counterpart such as the steel columns and reinforced concrete columns, etc. are due to their high cost compared to other types of constructions.

3. Steel Columns

A steel column is an indispensable piece of steel structure which can be used to support a variety of loading conditions in a wide range of building structures, such as offices and factories and houses. A steel column consists mainly by round or square bars, made from steels with different strength properties and used in different construction applications

Steel type of column is widely used in both residential and commercial structures. The main advantages of steel columns are they are relatively low cost, lighter weight, provide more strength to the columns compared to other types of columns, and can withstand high loads without needing much concrete for the load distribution.

The disadvantages such as deterioration with time, lack of options in the design process, corrosion problems, etc. may be some major drawbacks associated with a steel column.

4. Reinforced Concrete Columns

This type of columns is used for providing a high level of strength and stiffness to the structure. Reinforced concrete columns can be either precast (concrete slab or beam) or cast in place (concrete block).

The strength and stiffness are achieved by using steel bars such as rebar embedded in the concrete and cured during casting process. While rebar is installed in the concrete, steel reinforcement wires are embedded at the time of placing.

Reinforced concrete columns can be used for giving high strength and stiffness to the structure.

The most common application of this type of column is in bridge structures when the load is transferred through it.

5. Reinforced Concrete and Steel Columns

This type of structures in which both the steel reinforcement bars and concrete are cast simultaneously together are referred to as precast reinforced concrete (PC) structures or precast reinforced concrete beam (RCB). These structures are found in buildings such as factories, office buildings, etc.

6. Square or Rectangular Column

This type of column has a cross sectional shape as square or rectangular.

7. Circular Column

Circular type of columns is circular in cross sectional shape. It is used for providing a compressive strength and may be either concrete or steel reinforced. The circular column is made by casting concrete into pre-cast sections. Circular columns can also be made using steel sections to transfer the vertical load from top to bottom, in this case, they are termed as structural steel circular columns (SCC).

8. Tie Column

A column which is placed in a horizontal position in a structure and is used for providing lateral support to the beams or slabs. Tie columns are often used in residential buildings of wood frame construction.

9. Composite Column

A column comprised of two or more materials joined together like steel with concrete, steel and wood, etc.

The composite column is made up of various materials like steel reinforced concrete, steel reinforced concrete composite columns, etc. The main advantage is that the construction is lighter in weight compared to the similar structures.

10. Segmental Columns

A column which has a shape of segment such as half circle, wedge, semicircle, etc.

11. Cross Beam Column

A column which is placed in a horizontal position where there are other beams or slabs in the right and left sides of the column and it transfers lateral loads to these beams or slabs through shear in the connection between them on all sides.

12. Back-to-Back Columns

A column which is placed in a horizontal position and is connected through vertical connection with another column not adjacent to it. This type of columns is used for transferring the lateral load to other structures, etc.

13. Stacked Columns

This type of columns is stacked one on top of the other and are used for vertical structural load transfer in buildings, bridges, etc.

14. Inclined Columns

This type of columns has the angle of inclination with the horizontal plane.

15.  Offset-Column

An offset column has multiple offsets in the cross-sectional shape, which perform the load transfer without any additional structural members. It is an economical alternative to other types of columns such as column bracing.

The main advantages such as cost effectiveness, high strength and stiffness, easy construction process are some main features of this type of structures as compared to other conventional types of columns.

16. Circular Column

A circular column is a cylinder where the compression and tension side of the column are clad with concrete and horizontal load transfer takes place through embedded steel bars in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the column.

The advantages such as high strength, good ductility, etc. are some main features of this type of columns while disadvantage such as cost are some drawbacks associated with it.

17. Cantilever Column

A cantilever column is a type of structure which has a free end or unsupported end which is subjected to large loads. In order to achieve the maximum strength and stiffness of column structure, cantilever columns are used.

The disadvantages such as high fabrication cost, low durability, difficult construction process, etc. are some drawbacks associated with the cantilever columns.

18. L and T shaped Column

This type of columns are L or T shaped.

19. Diagonal (Stirrups) Column

A diagonal, stirrup, or channel column is a compression member used to brace and support the compression face of the beams in a structure where the tension forces of concrete are transferred by steel bars embedded in a horizontal position.

The main advantage of this type is that it provides high strength with low weight. While disadvantages such as heavy and bulky, high cost, etc are some drawbacks associated with this type of columns.

20. Composite Column

A composite column is a column whose cross-sectional shape varies according to the loads it is required to carry. This type of column is used for connecting different structural members to transfer the vertical load from top to bottom and horizontal forces in between.

The main advantages of this type of column are low cost, ease of construction process and also good mechanical properties. While this type of columns has some drawbacks such as heavy weight, high fabrication cost, etc.

21. Axially Loaded Column

A column is called as axially loaded if it carries concave axial load.

The main advantage of using such columns is that it has higher resistance compared to other types of columns. While disadvantage such as structural weight, low ductility, etc. are some drawbacks associated with this type of columns.

22. Eccentrically Loaded Columns

A column is called as eccentrically loaded if it carries eccentric load on its surface.

23. Pad Column

A pad column is a concave cylindrical column mounted below a slab to maintain the vertical and horizontal forces on the slab.

It is used to transfer the large forces from the beams or slabs onto their support. The main advantage of this type of columns is that very little amount of material is required while construction process is easy for it.

While disadvantage such as high fabrication cost, low strength and stiffness, etc are some disadvantages associated with this type of columns.

24. Uniaxial Eccentrically Loaded Column

An uniaxial eccentrically loaded column is a column, which carries either compressive or tensile loads, it has two opposite faces which create the loads in the vertical direction.

25. Axially Loaded Columns

An axially loaded column is a column which carries convex loads in the axial direction of the structure. The main advantage of this type of columns is that it provides high strength with low weight.

26. Biaxial Eccentrically Loaded Column

A biaxial eccentrically loaded column is a column which carries either compressive or tensile loads in the axial direction, it has two opposite faces and also has a third face in the shape of a V with concave face.

The main advantage of this type of columns is that it provides higher strength than the other types of columns available in the market.

While disadvantages such as high fabrication cost, high weight, etc are some drawbacks associated with this type of columns.

27. Short Column

A short column is a semi-permanent structure which uses unbraced members to transfer the loads from top to bottom and horizontal forces. The main advantage of short columns is that it has higher strength, good ductility and also easy to construct.

While disadvantage such as low durability, high fabrication cost, etc are some drawbacks associated with this type of columns.

28.  Long Column

A tall/long column is a semi-permanent structure which uses unbraced members to transfer the loads from top to bottom and horizontal forces.

The main advantage of tall columns is that it has higher strength, good ductility and also easy to construct.

29.  Beam Column

A beam column consists of a beam or truss member which is supported by members below it in order to transfer the vertical loads from floor to top and horizontal forces in between them. It holds the construction up to a desired height.

The main advantage of this type of columns is that they have cheap and good strength with low weight. While disadvantages such as low durability, high weight, etc are some drawbacks associated with this type of columns.

30. Timber Column

A timber column is a type of column made from wood which is used for floor beams, walls and roofs. The main advantage of this type of columns is that it has higher strength and also cheap.

While disadvantage such as low durability, more maintenance cost, etc are some drawbacks associated with this type of columns.

31. Reinforced Concrete Column

A reinforced concrete column has steel bars added to the steel to protect against horizontal forces in the concrete column during construction and also during its lifetime while it is in use.

32. Brick Column

A brick column is a combination of bricks and steel bars to support the structure. The main advantage of this type of columns is that high strength with low weight is provided by it.

While disadvantage such as low durability, high fabrication cost, etc. are some drawbacks associated with this type of columns.

33. Block Column

A block column is a combination of block and steel bars to support the structure. The main advantage of this type of columns is that high strength with low weight is provided by it.

While disadvantage such as low durability, high fabrication cost, etc. are some drawbacks associated with this type of columns.

34. Stone Column

A stone column is a combination of stones and steel bars in order to support the structure. The main advantage of this type of columns is that high strength with low cost are provided by it.

While disadvantage such as low durability, high fabrication cost, etc are some drawbacks associated with this type of columns.

35. Floating Column

A Floating column is a column that transfers the load from beam to another beam. It is a structural member which rest on a beam, and it does not transfer the load directly to the foundation. 

A floating column acts as a point load on the beam, and this beam transmits the load to the columns below it. 

 The column may start on the first or second or any other intermediate floor while resting on a beam. Typically, the columns rest on the foundation to transfer load from slabs and beams; however, the floating column rests on the beam.

Function of Column in Building

What are the functions of columns in Building and construction

A column is the vertical structural member of the building which is used to carry the pressure from one level to another. A column passes load from one level to another through its foundation. These columns are used in both types of construction, i.e. in steel and concrete construction.

In every type of construction, columns have their own properties and importance because they bear both axial and twisting load and bending moments are also carried by them which makes them very important element in construction. Columns are also used for structural or non-structural purposes.

What Structures use Columns?

Columns are a structural element that can be found in many different places in  architecture. The Ancient Greeks were the first to use columns when constructing buildings and temples. Columns create a sense of height and stability. Columns can also be used on their own as an architectural detail or they may have sculptures built into them.

Columns are used in many structures, from buildings to bridges. Columns help make buildings and bridges strong because they provide support for other parts of the structure. The column is a hollow cylinder that helps the building stand up.

Columns are the most important and often the largest structural members. These are used extensively in a variety of construction. In construction these are generally used in strong load-carrying structures, such as buildings and bridges.

Columns use vary from construction to construction depending on their physical properties, structure type, material and size. The strength of column depends upon the size and the shape and cross-sectional area that’s possessed by it.

Difference Between Beam and Column

What is the difference between a beam and a column?

A beam is a horizontal structural member which bears the loads and transmits them to the various vertical columns. In case of beams, it is essentially subjected to the tension and compression forces.

A beam is a structural horizontal member of a structure that resists transverse load. A column is a structural vertical member of a structure that resists axial/eccentric load.

The load is carried perpendicular to the longitudinal axis by the beam, whereas the load is parallel to the longitudinal axis by the column.

The beam carries or resists bending and shear force, whereas the column carries or resists compression stress.

Beam shapes include square, rectangular, T shapes, I shape, and H shapes, whereas column shapes include rectangular, circular, square, T shapes, L shapes, C shapes, elliptical, and so on.

The beam’s minimum width is 200 mm. A column’s minimum width is 200 mm, however for earthquake resistance, it should be 300 mm.

Longitudinal steel in Beam is utilized on two faces to counteract bending moment, whereas vertical loads are resisted by stirrups or inclined beam.

The longitudinal steel in the Column is present on all faces and effectively resists compression.

In the case of RCC structures, the structure is cast with a slab, therefore additional attention is taken with its concreting and curing. In the case of RCC structures, the quality of concreting and curing is overlooked because the structure is cast in small quantities.

How To Design a Concrete Column?

 

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